Unanderra Physiotherapy and Pilates
29A Central Rd
Unanderra NSW 2526
Tel: (02) 4271 5648
Before you start an exercise program, consult your physiotherapist.
We would like to introduce you to some common fitness terms that you are likely to hear and use regularly.
Abduction refers to the movement of a body part away from the central axis of the body, as in the patient raising his/her arm out to the side. Adduction is just the opposite-moving the body part toward the central axis or bringing the arm in toward to the body.
Aerobic (cardiovascular) fitness Reflects how much oxygen is in the blood your heart pumps and transports to your working muscles, as well as the muscles' efficiency in using that oxygen.
Aerobic exercise is exercise in the presence of oxygen. In other words, your body is burning its fuel (glucose) in the presence of oxygen. It is performed at less than 85% of your maximum heart rate. An aerobically fit individual can work longer, more vigorously and achieve a quicker recovery at the end of the aerobic session. Jogging, cycling, swimming, aerobics classes, and rowing are examples of aerobic exercise.
Anaerobic exercise is working at higher than 85% of your maximum heart rate. It involves short bursts of exertion followed by periods of rest. Anaerobic mean in the absence of oxygen. In other words, it is the burning of glucose, by the body, without the use of oxygen. Weight training and sprinting are examples of anaerobic exercise.
Body mass index (BMI) A number that describes a body's relative weight and strongly correlates to total body fat content in adults.
Bosu ball is an exercise ball that's been cut in half with a platform on the bottom.
Cartilage is connective tissue that covers the ends of bones and acts as a cushion to absorb shock and a smooth surface to decrease friction between two or more bones in a moving joint.
Circuit training is selected weight-training exercises performed one after another in an exercise sequence, usually using lighter weights and short periods of rest.
Contraction is the act of shortening that takes place when muscle fibers generate tension. Muscle contraction of the biceps occurs when the elbow is bent.
Cool down Gradually reducing the intensity of exercise for several minutes at the end of a session to stabilise the cardiovascular system after a workout.
Core strength is a multi-joint exercise, involving larger muscle groups such as the chest, back, hip/thigh, and shoulder muscles. Core exercises should receive priority because of their direct application to a sport.
Cross training is the use of more than one type of exercise to achieve your training goals.
Endurance activities/training Repetitive, aerobic use of large muscles (as with such activities as walking, cycling, swimming, etc).
Endurance The body's ability to resist fatigue; includes muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory endurance.
Exercise ball is a large, inflated rubber ball 55 to 85+ centimeters in diameter used for strength, balance, and flexibility exercise. Also known as therapy ball or Swiss ball.
Extension refers to a movement to the posterior or back of the anatomic or neutral position. For example, lowering one's arm from the shoulder is extension as opposed to raising the arm forward from the shoulder which is called flexion. Bending the knee during sitting is flexion; straightening the knee as in standing is extension.
Flexibility is the total range of motion in a joint or joints.
Heart rate A measurement of the work done by the heart, most commonly expressed as the number of heart beats per minute (bpm).
Hypertension Abnormally high blood pressure, usually defined as systolic pressure higher than 140 mmHg or diastolic pressure higher than 90 mmHg.
Interval training A workout session that involves repeated short, fast-paced bouts of exercise separated by short rest intervals.
Lactic acid Anaerobic exercise produces lactic acid, which quickly forms lactate in the muscles, so these terms ("lactate" and "lactic acid") are often used interchangeably.
Ligaments are the soft tissues that hold two or more bones together.
Maximum heart rate (HRmax) The highest number of heart beats per minute (bpm) when pushing the body as hard as possible. HRmax-p score (in all Polar S-series Heart Rate Monitors) predicts your individual maximum heart rate. The most accurate way of determining your individual HRmax is to have it clinically measured in maximal exercise stress test in a laboratory. HRmax is a useful tool for determining the intensity of exercise.
Medicine ball are weight balls of various sizes and weights, used for resistance or plyometric training.
Over-training The attempt to do more work than the body can physically tolerate.
Physical activity Any movement of the body produced by the muscles that results in increased energy expenditure.
Plyometrics are exercises characterised by the application of a quick muscle stretch followed by rapid muscle shortening enabling muscle(s) to achieve maximal rates of force development. They are intended to improve reactive/explosive muscle performance.
Progressive resistance exercise is exercise whereby load or resistance is applied to a muscle and is increased over time. For example, increasing the number of weights and the number of sets. This is done for strengthening.
Proprioception is the body's ability to sense where it is in space. For example, close your eyes and touch your nose. How were you able to move your finger to your nose without seeing it? Your body uses its sensory system in the joints and muscles to know where it is going. Balance and coordination both depend on your body's proprioceptive skills.
Resistance training is the use of external force to build up the body's ability to exert muscular force. Also known as weight or strength training.
Resting heart rate (HRrest) The number of heart beats in one minute (bpm) when a person is at complete rest. A person's HRrest decreases as they become more fit.
Sets are a discrete number of repetitions. For example, if you lift a weight 10 times, rest, and lift the weight 10 times again, you have performed "two sets" of 10 repetitions.
Strength is a muscles ability to generate force. It is usually measured with a one repetition maximum.
Tapering A reduction in training intensity before a major competition to give the body and mind a break from the rigors of intensive training.
Target heart rate is your target heart rate is a range you exercise in and should be 60-85% of your maximum heart rate. (220 - age) x 60% = bottom end of Target Heart Range, (220 - age) x 85% = top end of Target Heart Range Exercise is considered aerobic if performed within this range.
Tendon is the non-contractile unit that transmits the force of the muscle to the bone. Tendons connect muscles to bones.
Warm up is a five to eight minute period of gradual exercise (involving the larger muscles of the body) to increase circulation and decrease joint stiffness, in preparation for exercise of a greater intensity.
These are just a few of the most basic terms you would encounter; as always, we will clarify anything you may have questions about.
Printed from http://unanderraphysio.com.au/phy/what-is-physiotherapy/general-terminology